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Nicole Apelion , foraging author Samual Thayer , and I was released! How to Use This Website. There are three ways to find a plant on this blog. By common name as listed in the sidebar to the left. On the right sidebar you can look for the plant based on the environment it grows, season, plant type, flower color, fruit or seedpod color, use, and Geographic Location in North America. The blog search box at the top of the page can be used to search for key words such as scientific names.

Foods edible raw have been marked with the Raw label to make them easier to focus on by raw foodists. Please read the plant details to identify which parts of the plant can safely be eaten raw and thoroughly wash any plants, especially if collected from ponds, streams, marshes, or swamps. This will lead you to a number of great resources that I use when trying to identify a new plant.

Finally, please read and take to heart the Foraging Ethics. This is to insure that the joy of wild foods remains available to all.

See a Problem?

Foraging Ethics. Respect the law. You must have permission from the property owner to collect plant matter. To forage without permission is considered stealing and you can be arrested. Most state and federal land prohibit gathering plants except in survival situations.

Respect the land. Leave no trace. Don't harvest a plant if there are just a few around. Respect the plant. Please harvest sustainably so that there will be plenty of plants year after year.

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Minimize damage to the plants by cutting leaves off the plant with a sharp knife or shears rather than tearing them off. Harvest inner bark using long, thin vertical strips on one side of the tree, do not cut a ring all around the tree which will kill it. Sterilize your cutting tools with alcohol or bleach to prevent transfer of diseases. Respect yourself. Please positively identify any plant before eating it. Eating the wrong plant can lead to illness or in rare circumstances, even death.

Also be aware of any environmental hazards in your foraging location such as snakes, bears, or chemical hazards from old oil fields, roadways, lead paint around old buildings or areas subject to flooding from sewers. Labels: Techniques. Benefits of Foraging.

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Solvitur ambulando, St. Jerome was fond of saying. It means I bend, stretch, and dig. It means I constantly have access fresh, vitamin packed foods that cost no money. It means I bond with my family, friends, neighbors and complete strangers.

So the larger the rotor, the more energy it can capture. A density correction should be made for higher elevations as shown in the Air Density Change with Elevation graph.

WINDExchange: Small Wind Guidebook

A correction for temperature is typically not needed for predicting the long-term performance of a wind turbine. Although the calculation of wind power illustrates important features about wind turbines, the best measure of wind turbine performance is annual energy output. The difference between power and energy is that power kilowatts [kW] is the rate at which electricity is consumed while energy kilowatt-hours [kWh] is the quantity consumed.

They will use a calculation based on the particular wind turbine power curve, the average annual wind speed at your site, the height of the tower that you plan to use, micro-siting characteristics of your site and, if available, the frequency distribution of the wind an estimate of the number of hours that the wind will blow at each speed during an average year. They should also adjust this calculation for the elevation of your site. To get a preliminary estimate of the performance of a particular wind turbine, use the formula below. The Wind Energy Payback Period Workbook is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet tool that can help you analyze the economics of a small wind electric system and decide whether wind energy will work for you.

It asks you to provide information about how you will finance the system, the characteristics of your site, and the properties of the system you're considering. It then provides you with a simple payback estimation assumes no increase in electricity rates in years. If the number of years required to regain your capital investment is greater than or almost equal to the life of the system, then wind energy will not be practical for you. Is the wind resource at your site good enough to justify your investment in a small wind turbine system? That is a key question and not always easily answered.

The wind resource can vary significantly over an area of just a few miles because of local terrain influences on the wind flow. Yet, there are steps you can take to answer the above question. The highest average wind speeds in the United States are generally found along seacoasts, on ridgelines, and on the Great Plains; [25] however, many areas have wind resources strong enough to make a small wind turbine project economically feasible. Although there may be many methodologies for understanding the wind resource at a specific location, gathering on-site, measured wind data is typically preferred.

A Pika Energy small wind turbine in Gorham, Maine. Prior to conducting an on-site measurement campaign, some small wind project developers use state wind maps to conservatively estimate the wind resource at turbine hub height. While these maps can provide a general indication of good or poor wind resources, they do not provide a resolution high enough to identify local site features. State wind maps cannot include information on complex terrain, ground cover, wind speed distribution, direction distribution, turbulence intensity, and other local effects.

Purchased maps or services can often provide higher resolution and more flexibility with zooming, orientation, and additional features. Pay attention to a map's height above ground as it relates to the potential project's tower height. Adjusting the wind speed for the height difference between the map and the turbine height adds a potential source of error depending on the wind shear exponent that is selected, and the greater the height difference the greater the potential error.

Therefore, for small wind generator applications, to m wind maps are far more useful than , , , or m wind maps. It is also important to understand the resolution of the wind map or model-generated data set.

West Texas WInd (1991)

If the resolution is lower than the terrain features, adjustments will be needed to account for local terrain effects. Local airport or weather stations can offer local wind data, but these data may be less reliable than actual site data. If airport data typically recorded at 30 ft or 10 m above ground or weather station data typically recorded at 5 to 20 ft above ground are used, inquire not only about the site's current equipment and location but also if it is historically consistent with the data collection equipment and siting. Equipment at these sites is not primarily intended for wind resource assessment, so it may not be positioned at an appropriate height or in a location free of obstructions.

Unfortunately, airport and weather stations are usually far from the site of interest, with considerably different orography, tree cover, and monitoring height, making these data of questionable usefulness. Given the expertise required to effectively establish and correlate wind resource data, the data provided by airport and weather stations may only provide a rough screening assessment. The National Climatic Data Center collects data from airports in the United States and makes wind data summaries available for purchase. Another useful indirect measurement of the wind resource is the observation of an area's vegetation.

Trees, especially conifers or evergreens, can be permanently deformed by strong winds.

Wind Energy Legislation Strategies for the Lone Star State

This deformity, known as "flagging," has been used to estimate the average wind speed for an area. Flagging, the effect of strong winds on area vegetation, can help determine area wind speeds. Small wind site assessors can help you determine whether you have a good wind resource on your site. State or utility incentive programs may be able to refer you to site assessors with training in assessing the wind resource at specific sites.

Computer programs that estimate the wind resource at a particular site given specific obstacles are also available. Site assessors and computer programs can help to refine the estimates provided on wind resource maps. On-site data measurement adds a new layer of confidence to the techniques discussed above, but with substantial additional costs, effort, and time, especially when the preferred methodology is to match turbine hub height and collect data for a minimum of 1 year.

Obtaining several years of data is better, or 1 year that can be referenced to a longer-term data set if there is good correlation with the on-site data. A number of small, affordable wind data collection systems are available for on-site measurement and are best run for at least 1 year.

These systems include anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature sensors that are mounted as close to hub height as possible.