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Notes: Representatives' age data do not include the Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Newly elected Members data do not include those returning to the House or Senate for a second time.

The U. Constitution requires Representatives to be at least 25 years old when they take office. Senators must be at least 30 years old when they take office. In contrast to the single declared profession of the Members, Table 2 uses data from the CQ Member Profiles to show the broader range of occupational experiences over the careers of the Members by presenting the occupations most frequently listed as prior careers. Table 2. Notes: Most Members list more than one profession when surveyed by CQ Roll Call , and the professions listed are not necessarily the ones Members practice immediately prior to entering Congress.

A closer look at the range of prior occupations and previously held public offices of Members of the House and Senate at the beginning of the th Congress, as listed in their CQ Member Profiles , 10 also shows the following:. As has been true in recent Congresses, the vast majority of Members Four Representatives 21 and one Senator in the th Congress are graduates of the U. Military Academy, two Senators 22 graduated from the U. Naval Academy, and one Representative graduated from the U. Air Force Academy. Table 3. Glassman and Amber Hope Wilhelm. Notes: Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

Senators are elected for six-year terms. Note that 50 Senators in the th Congress have previously served in the House. Their House service is not included in this average, nor is the House service of Senators included in previous Congresses. These numbers are lower than at the beginning of the th Congress, when Ninety-eight percent of the Members of the th Congress are reported to be affiliated with a specific religion.

Statistics gathered by the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, which studies the religious affiliation of Members, and CQ at the beginning of the th Congress showed the following:. A record female Members Of the 92 women in the House, 67 are Democrats, including 3 of the Delegates, and 25 are Republicans, including 1 Delegate as well as the Resident Commissioner. Of the 23 women in the Senate, 17 are Democrats and 6 are Republicans.

There are a record 52 African American Members 9.

This number includes one Representative, as well as one Senator, who are of African American and Asian ancestry, and one Representative who is of African American and Hispanic ancestry. In this report, each of these three Members is counted as belonging to two ethnic groups. Two Senators are Democrats and one is Republican.


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Twenty-one African American women, including two Delegates, serve in the House, and one serves in the Senate. There are 46 Hispanic or Latino Members in the th Congress, 8. These numbers include one House Member who is also of Asian descent, and one House Member of African ancestry; these Members are counted in both ethnic categories in this report.

Ten are women, including the Resident Commissioner. Of the five Hispanic Senators three Republicans, two Democrats , one is a woman. Eighteen Members of the th Congress 3. These numbers include one House Member and one Senator who are also of African American ancestry, and another House Member of Hispanic ancestry; these Members are counted in both ethnic categories in this report. Of those serving in the House, two are Delegates. Eighteen Representatives and 5 Senators 4. Some of these Members were born to American citizens working or serving abroad.

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Congress by the Numbers – 2018

Constitution requires that Representatives be citizens for seven years and Senators be citizens for nine years before they take office. At the beginning of the th Congress, there were Members According to lists compiled by CQ , the House as of September 11, , has 76 veterans including 2 female Members, as well as 1 Delegate ; the Senate has 17 veterans, including 2 women. All of the female veterans are combat veterans. The number of veterans in the th Congress reflects the trend of steady decline in recent decades in the number of Members who have served in the military.

For summary information on the demographics of Members in selected past Congresses, including age trends, occupational backgrounds, military veteran status, and educational attainment, see CRS Report R, Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since , coordinated by R. Eric Petersen. A cumulative chronological list of all U. Information on the five Delegates and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico is included where relevant.

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References to the term "Representative s " includes information on the Members of the House but not Delegates or the Resident Commissioner. Manning and Ida A. Conyers resigned from the House on December 5, The oldest Representative in the th Congress then became Rep. Slaughter died on March 16, ; the oldest Representative then became Rep.

Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945

The CQ. The profiles are also available in print form in the CQ publication Politics in America. The professions listed here are not exhaustive and are not necessarily the ones practiced by Members immediately prior to entering Congress. One of the medical doctors in the Senate is an ophthalmologist, and one of the medical doctors in the House is also a veterinarian.

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One of the medical doctors in the House, counted here, resigned from Congress in February In addition, one Senator previously served as the U. Trade Representative, a position carrying the rank and title of Ambassador. For example, federal and state governments encouraged immigration through railroad and canal construction subsidies because the companies that built the railroads and canals needed to hire laborers, who were most easily found in Ireland and Germany.

Federal and state militias enlisted foreigners—immigrants represented a third of the regular soldiers in the U. Immigrants were generally welcomed in the late s and early s. Although there were fears, especially in the Federalist Party, that immigrants might alter the culture and customs of the United States, the match between Europeans seeking opportunity and an America in need of people left the immigration door wide open. The Naturalization Act of established the principle that an immigrant could acquire citizenship relatively easily.

After , ship captains had to report on the immigrants they brought to the United States, and since then, 67 million immigrants have been admitted to the United States. Immigration increased in the s, but most were from Great Britain and Germany, and most were Protestants. The first major anti-immigrant reaction arose after the influx of Roman Catholic immigrants in the s.

However, Congress did not respond to the anti-immigrant feeling: one reason for inaction was the Civil War and reconstruction, which slowed immigration. When mass immigration resumed in the s, the United States was largely a rural and Protestant nation. Woodrow Wilson, later elected president, shared the popular pessimism toward newcomers in In , qualitative restrictions barred the arrival of convicts and prostitutes.

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Many Americans wanted to keep out illiterate immigrants, and Congress approved literacy tests for arriving immigrants in , , and so that adult foreigners who could not read or write in any language would not be admitted. However, literacy tests were vetoed by three presidents, but the veto was overridden in , so foreigners over the age of sixteen who could not read in any language were barred. World War I virtually stopped transatlantic migration. In , Congress passed the Temporary Quota Act, which set numerical restrictions on immigrant admissions, and in , this was set at , per year, plus accompanying wives and children.

Immigration was also restricted administratively. For example, the Hoover Administration — instructed consular officials to strictly interpret U. Immigration fell to 97, in and then to the lowest level of the twentieth century—only 23, immigrants arrived in during the depths of the Depression.

During the s, s, and s, over 80 percent of all immigrant visas were granted to people from northern and western European countries, 14 percent to eastern and southern Europeans, and 4 percent to people from other Eastern Hemisphere countries. There was no quota on immigration from Western Hemisphere countries such as Mexico, and there was no U. During the s, the number of Mexican-born U. The INA left Western Hemisphere immigration unrestricted, but this migration was regulated by other means.

When President John F. Kennedy was elected in , he pledged to change the national origins system in a manner that would treat the nationals of all countries equally. Immigration from the Eastern Hemisphere was limited to , a year with a maximum 20, per country. A seven-tiered preference system set U.

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The Western Hemisphere was given a quota of , immigrants per year, and in , the Eastern and Western Hemisphere quotas were combined into one system with a worldwide ceiling of , Senator Edward Kennedy D-Mass. He was wrong. Immigration shifted from a mostly transatlantic movement from Europe to the United States to a Latin American and Asian phenomenon.